Many novel proton conducting materials are based on complex hydrogen bonding networks of amphoteric hydrogen bonded moieties. Solid state NMR provides unique methods to study the properties of such network and specific proton conduction mechanisms in detail. In particular 1H solid state NMR techniques under fast magic angle spinning are powerful tools in this area. Site specific studies of the dynamic behavior via variable temperature 1H MAS measurements provide insight in the thermodynamics of the hydrogen bonding as well as activation energies for the proton transfer between the amphoteric sites. On macroscopic length scales, pulsed field gradient NMR experiments are able to determine the proton mobility and the contribution of different conduction mechanisms. In this article, aspects of recent solid state NMR studies in the field are reviewed and typical experimental methods as well as their possible outcome are discussed.